Schizophrenia: everything you need to know about this disease

Who suffer schizophrenia They are not violent people nor do they represent a danger to others. But because little is known about the origin of this condition, some people confuse it with other disorders, such as the disorder of personality multiple. And the truth is, not all of the time psychiatric conditions have to do with childhood trauma. Therefore everything important about this disease, it will be good to know to help other people.

Description of schizophrenia

It is a very serious disease, in which patients interpret real life in an abnormal way. The schizophrenia causes combinations of hallucinations, other disorders within thinking, delusions and serious behavior problems; affecting the person's daily behavior, and could even permanently incapacitate them.

Those who have been diagnosed with this disease will need to undergo treatment for the rest of their lives. When treatment is carried out early, it could be of great help to maintain control of symptoms, with the aim of improving quality of life in the longer term.

A disease like schizophrenia affects approximately 1% of the entire population in the world. Symptoms usually appear between the ages of 13 and 25, although it is often earlier, and more common in men than in women.

[You may also be interested in: 5 early and terrifying symptoms that can indicate schizophrenia]

Symptoms

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Suffer from schizophrenia it involves a variety of problems that affect thinking, emotions, and behavior. These symptoms vary depending on the case. Although fantasies usually occur, lack of order in words and hallucinations. They also demonstrate a deficiency in the ability to live normally. The most common symptoms in patients with this disease are:

Positive symptoms

They receive this name because they are unusual behaviors that are not seen in people who are relatively healthy. In certain cases, these symptoms remain intermittently throughout the person's life. For other cases, they are symptoms that acquire stability over time. However, they could be serious, but not easily noticeable. Among the symptoms considered positive of this metal disorder they find each other:

Disorders that affect thinking: This is the case in which the person thinks illogically or strangely. There is a serious fault in the existing order of ideas. For example, the person could stop talking in the middle of a thought, or even make up words that are meaningless.

Hallucinations: when this happens the person suffering from schizophrenia hears, observes, feels, perceives flavors and smells of unreal things. Usually people who hallucinate hear voices. There are cases where patients who hear voices may have been hearing them for a long time. Without their family or friends, they have realized that that person has a problem.

Disorders that affect movement: The body movements shown by the person with schizophrenia they are abnormal. You could even repeat a series of movements continuously. Contrary to this, the person could temporarily stop speaking or moving, being an unusual condition known as catatonia.

Delusions: In the presence of this symptom, the patient believes things that are fictitious or uncertain. An example is the following: the patient might believe that people who appear on television speak exclusively to him. Likewise, that patient may believe that he is in danger, or that other people want to hurt him.

Negative symptoms

These symptoms of schizophrenia They refer to social withdrawal, complications to express emotions or problems with normal functioning. Those who experience symptoms that are negative need assistance with day-to-day tasks. Among the negative symptoms of this disease are:

– They speak keeping a muffled voice.

– Problems with facial expressions, either maintaining a smile or an annoyed expression.

– Difficulties regarding feeling happy.

– Disadvantages when planning, and also for activities, such as shopping at the market.

– Express yourself very little when talking to other people, regardless of whether it is an important situation.

When it comes to symptoms like these, it is quite difficult for them to be recognized as belonging to the disease. Because of this, it could be mistaken for some other psychiatric problem.

Symptoms of Schizophrenia in Teens

When dealing with adolescent patients with schizophrenia, the symptoms that appear are very similar to those of an adult person. With the difference that the disease could be much more complicated to detect. Situations like this are probably due to the fact that the symptoms are associated with common developmental changes in adolescence. Usually the symptoms that occur are:

– Distance from family and also from friends.

– Low performance at the school level.

– Disorders that affect sleep.

– Depressive mood or irritable difference.

– Little motivation.

In addition to this, when adolescents use narcotic substances, the symptoms that appear are very similar to those mentioned.

Compared to symptoms that occur in an adult patient, adolescents may experience:

– Low probability of having delusional thoughts.

– Greater chances of experiencing visual hallucinations.

Causes of schizophrenia

Not much is yet known about the causes that cause schizophrenia. However, specialists believe that a combination of various factors contribute to the development of this disease. These factors could be genetic, alterations in the chemistry of the brain and environmental agents.

Genetic heritage: sometimes this disease appears due to a greater genetic predisposition. However, it is necessary to bear in mind that not all members of a family may suffer from schizophrenia.

Environmental factors: environmental agents could play a role in the development of the disease. For example, living in a situation of poverty, excessively stressful environments, exposure to viruses or even nutritional problems at birth.

Disturbance in brain function, chemistry, and structure: These disturbances could be caused by environmental agents or by inheritance. And at the same time they could cause schizophrenia.

Despite the fact that science is constantly advancing, more studies are still needed to determine the exact causes of this disease.

Types of schizophrenia that exist

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Catatonic schizophrenia

Its main characteristic is the psychomotor alterations in the person. These alterations are not the same at all times, but the most common are mobility and rigidity. Where the person could tense the muscles, to the point of resembling a doll made of wax.

In the course of the moments where this catatonia occurs, alterations of consciousness usually appear, as well as others such as mutism. But keep in mind that catatonic schizophrenia varies greatly depending on the patient. And for the most part, patients do not have all symptoms at the same time.

Simple schizophrenia

This is a definition that has been given to schizophrenia when there are not many positive symptoms, but if they have all the negative symptoms. Therefore, it is characterized by the high decrease in mental procedures; but not so much from excessive mental activity.

Those who suffer from this kind of schizophrenia, have various forms of inhibition, communicate very little, affective flattening, among others. Contrary to what happens with other types of schizophrenia, this has been proposed by the WHO.

Disorganized schizophrenia

More than being a behavioral problem, the disease manifests itself in the way the symptoms are organized. It means that the main characteristic of this disease is the disorganized way in which the actions of the person occur.

Paranoid schizophrenia

This has been one of the best-known types of schizophrenia, and in this case the symptoms are more on a psychic level than motor. Furthermore, those patients with this metal disorder, have no problems with speech or motor skills. The sign that helps to identify this kind of condition is persecutory mania, where the patient believes that others will harm him.

Residual schizophrenia

Currently this category is used to determine cases where positive symptoms are mild. While the negative symptoms that remain, are the ones that attract attention. If you want to fully understand this kind of schizophrenia, you will need to pay attention to time. In order to make comparisons between a before and after.

Undifferentiated schizophrenia

Also called the disaster drawer, it is used to classify cases where the criteria for the diagnosis do not fully fit. Because of this, it is difficult to consider a single type of schizophrenia for each of the existing cases.

Treatment of schizophrenia

To treat the schizophrenia, there are two ways that you can help keep your symptoms under control:

Antipsychotic drugs

The use of antipsychotic medications is of great help for all patients suffering from schizophrenia and they have psychotic symptoms. Some patients may experience side effects when taking this class of drugs. But mostly these effects wear off after a few days.

Not all people respond the same way to the administration of antipsychotic medications. Therefore, it will be essential to inform the doctor about the side effects. Many times it is necessary to do tests with different drugs, in order to get the most appropriate.

A person with this metal disorder You should not stop taking the medications without consulting the specialist. Suddenly stopping treatment for this disease could be dangerous. And there are cases where the symptoms turn into a more serious picture.

Likewise, the specialist is the one who determines the medicine, the dose and also the most appropriate plan to treat the condition. Based on what the person needs, as well as their medical situation. Only an expert in psychiatry is able to help the patient. Deciding if the benefits you will get from the drug outweigh the side effects.

Psychosocial treatment

It is a procedure that will help people with this disease to overcome all their daily difficulties. They are very useful treatments; once the appropriate medication for schizophrenia has been found. Examples of this kind of treatment are:

Family education: An expert will explain to the rest of the family members what they should do to help the patient in his illness.

Skills development to manage schizophrenia: it will be a procedure that greatly helps the person. Not only to learn more about your disease, but also to manage it efficiently.

Rehabilitation: it will help the person to acquire and maintain their studies and work. But in addition to that, you will improve your skills to perform conventional tasks.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy: It is of great help for the person to identify their problems, and learn the best way to solve them. This kind of therapy will focus on changes in thought patterns and behavior that are most helpful.

Advice in groups of patients who also suffer from schizophrenia: will encourage the patient to receive help from other people. They usually have a more advanced recovery from their illness.

Treatment for drug and alcohol abuse: it is usually a treatment that is combined with another kind of treatment for schizophrenia.

Source:

Mayo clinic

Mayo clinic

Psychology and mind