Risks and repercussions of periodontal disease

Periodontal diseases are those that affect the gums. In this article we will focus on risks and repercussions of periodontal disease, since they affect our general health secondary. Do not miss it!

What is periodontal disease?

Periodontal lesions are caused by the accumulation of microorganisms that alter the gums. If this disease is not corrected in time, move slowly being able to cause the loss of the teeth and other varied pathologies in our body.

On the one hand we find gingivitis, which is the inflammation of the gums that causes bleeding when brushing, without bone loss. On the other hand, periodontitis, which in addition to inflammation and bleeding, causes bone loss.

Prevention measures and patient education about periodontal disease is essential to prevent its development. Further, It is very important to know how to explain and publicize basic hygiene measures and other risk factors that are key to stop the progression of this disease.

To reduce the risks of health complications from periodontal disease it is important to know the disease and what are the measures to prevent it.

Risk factor's

These types of diseases can be caused by different causes, among them we find, for example:

  • Poor hygiene, which It produces a buildup of plaque and bacteria in the gum groove.
  • Hormonal changes especially those that occur in women during adolescence, menstruation, pregnancy and menopause, which cause important changes at the periodontium level, especially if there is preexisting gingival inflammation.
  • Systemic diseases (Down syndrome, Crohn's disease, diabetes, among others).
  • Occlusal trauma
  • Smoking is one of the main risk factors, since increases the likelihood of periodontitis and interferes with tissue healing.
  • Lifestyle can become a risk factor for periodontal health due to inadequate food consumption, lack of exercise, alcohol and other substances.

Read also: What is a dental abscess and how should it be treated?

Risks and repercussions of periodontal disease

Both gingivitis and periodontitis can affect our health, causing or worsening diseases that we already have as a basis.

Vascular alterations

Multiple studies have linked periodontal disease with vascular disorders. This relationship is produced by the passage of oral bacteria into the bloodstream.

The microorganisms present in periodontal disease cause inflammation of the endocardium and adhere to heart valves and heart tissues that are previously damaged. As a result, they cause diseases such as:

  • Bacterial endocarditis
  • Heart attack.
  • Heart disease
  • Thrombosis.
  • Coronary insufficiency
  • Varicose veins


Arteriosclerosis is caused by narrowing of the blood vessels due to excess cholesterol. Its development is associated with some bacteria responsible for periodontal disease.

It is a disease in which a narrowing of the blood vessels occurs due to the adhesion of cholesterol plaques on its walls. Also, after studying that plate, bacteria related to periodontal disease have been found.

Similarly, it has been shown that these bacteria help form lipopolysaccharides, responsible for the conglomeration of cholesterol.

Respiratory diseases

When you inhale the bacteria that are in your mouth, They pass into the airways until they reach the lungs. Among them we find:

  • Bacterial pneumonia
  • Bronchitis.
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  • Lung abscesses

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Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus It is another disease that is related to periodontal problems. The main evidence that supports this theory is that blood glucose stabilizes after periodontal treatment and, in turn, untreated periodontal disease destabilizes blood glucose.

Gum diseases are also associated with kidney conditions, cerebrovascular disorders, premature delivery and low birth weight of the baby.

How can we solve it?

Periodic reviews performed by the professional dentist are essential to diagnose the disease.

  • Both cleanings and root scraping and smoothing treatments, Commonly called curettage, they are the basic treatments to be able to end it.
  • If the disease is in an initial period, It is necessary to eliminate accumulated bacteria through professional prophylaxis.
  • In the case of periodontitis, treatment is usually divided into two phases. First, in the basic phase, the microorganisms guilty of the infection are eliminated using scraping and root smoothing. In those diseases whose condition is more serious Periodontal surgery will be necessary to access the gum bag.

In conclusion, oral health can secondaryly affect our overall health. Thus, it’s very important to keep it under control with revisions, and put a stop to periodontal disease as soon as possible. Maintaining good control of periodontal disease, we also make sure to prevent cardiovascular diseases.