The spread of pests and diseases of plants has increased in recent years and, in fact, has reached epidemic dimensions. Although it is a problem that receives more and more attention, still not enough strategies have been developed to reduce the impact they generate at an economic and environmental level.
Outbreaks and pests are responsible for huge losses of crops and pastures in many countries. Thus, they have also become big enemies of farmers and, in addition, they have been cataloged as a threat to the food security of thousands of people.
Which are the most common? We tell you in this article.
Basic guide on pests and diseases of plants
Talking about pests and diseases of plants can be a subject that is too long and difficult to understand. Fortunately, at present, dWe have a wide variety of information about the parasites, insects, viruses, fungi and bacteria that can affect the orchards.
This information has been key to know how they attack and what is the best way to control them. So that, in today's space we want to share a basic guide on the most common pests and diseases that can affect the plants of our orchards and gardens. Do not miss it!
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It is the best-known parasite and there are several species of it. In general, they have a suction peak that allows them to pierce the leaves and stems of plants to feed on their sap.
They are related to problems of deformation and curling of buds and leaves. They often affect the crops of beans, cabbage, potatoes and peas, among others.
They are easy to identify because they have a very peculiar whitish color. They usually inhabit the back of the leaves of the crops and fly out when we move the leaves with the hand.
Its presence can cause premature leaf damage and yellowing of the leaves. They are common in tomato crops, beans, peppers, onions and cabbage, among others.
Its scientific name is Tetranychus urticae. Son some very small red spiders that usually harbor the back of the leaves. Their damages are recognizable at first sight, since they produce yellowish spots on the leaves. Also, when the pest spreads, the leaves dry and fall off.
This plague pIt can be found in a wide variety of crops, including fruit trees, garden plants or food plantations such as potatoes, squash, beans and almonds.
They are tiny insects that can attack all parts of the plant. When they proliferate, they make the fruits, leaves and stems acquire a very particular grayish-metallic coloration. They often damage the flowers too. The most affected crops include:
- The Jewish.
- The eggplant.
They are very common parasites in the orchards, especially when the soils are very humid. They can damage the roots and, therefore, also kill the plant.
Sometimes, it is difficult to recognize them, since the symptoms are similar to those suffered by the plant due to lack of water or nutrients. They often affect the eggplant, potato and onion plants.
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It is a type of fungus that is associated with molasses, a sugary substance that may be secreted by aphids or whitefly. It can be identified by the appearance of a black powder coat both in the fruits and in the stem.
In general, they can cause a loss of production because affect the vigor of the plant. They are frequent in potatoes, peas, cabbages, zucchini and peppers.
It's another mushroom variety that can cause the appearance of red pustules on the back of the leaves of the plants. It can deteriorate the leaves until they end falling. They often proliferate in crops of beans, peas and beans.
Caused by the genus of bacteria Erwinia, it manifests in the beginning as an opaque and humid spot on the surface of the fruit. When it advances, the stain spreads and the fruit ends up rotting completely. It affects a multitude of crops, including potatoes and peppers.
It is one of the plagues and diseases of the plants that produce damages so much in the stems and buds, as in the fruits. It is caused by bacteria of the genus Clavibacter, which produce elongated spots on the stems and circular spots on the fruits. The most susceptible crops include pepper and tomato.
Tomato mosaic virus
To finish this list of pests and diseases of plants, we highlight the tomato mosaic virus. Its name comes from the stains it causes on tomato leaves, what They resemble a mosaic in green tones. It can also affect pepper crops.
Did you know these plant pests and diseases? If you identify them in your garden, inquire about how to control them. Now, keep in mind that pests should only be eradicated when they damage plants and crops. Do not forget!