Hyperphosphatemia: high concentrations of phosphate in the blood
Hyperphosphatemia it is the situation where blood phosphorus figures are recorded higher than those considered normal. In reality, it is not just any phosphorus that is taken into consideration for measurement, but specifically inorganic phosphorus.
While it depends on the laboratory that performs the measurement, Normal phosphorus values are considered to range between 2.5 and 4.5 mg / dL. When the blood test reports measurements greater than 4.5, hyperphosphatemia can be diagnosed.
Phosphorus is an element that fulfills important functions within the human organism. Although unknown to many, it is a macromineral that the body requires to carry out metabolic functions that it cannot perform otherwise.
Of all the phosphorus we have in the body, more than two thirds are contained in the bones. The rest is located in tissue cells to generate operating energy.
As we can see, according to their body distribution, it is the bones and teeth that are most affected by situations of deficiency or phosphorus over-accumulation. On the other hand, phosphorus is an ally of calcium, which causes renal alterations when hyperphosphatemia appears.
We obtain the phosphorus of food, generally to a large extent when the diet is varied. Under normal conditions, the excess phosphorus that the body does not need is removed renally through urine and intestinally with fecal matter.
The foods richest in phosphorus are red and white meats and nuts, such as almonds and walnuts. There is also good availability of the element in dairy products, such as milk, yogurt or cheese. Some countries have food laws that force industries to add phosphorus to certain products as a form of enrichment.
Causes of hyperphosphatemia
Hyperphosphatemia becomes more frequent over the years because its main cause is renal failure. This situation in which the kidneys are unable to concentrate urine is much more prevalent among the elderly than among young people. But, In addition to renal failure, there are other causes of hyperphosphatemia:
Kidney failure is the leading cause of hyperphosphatemia.
Read on: Hypocalcaemia: what it is and what is its treatment
Symptoms of hyperphosphatemia
Elevated phosphate in the blood can be found more as an incidental event than because of symptoms that make it suspect. In most cases, the data appears because a general blood test has been requested. to assess other diseases in the person.
Those who suffer from hyperphosphatemia rarely manifest symptoms due to the phosphorus that is elevated in their blood. However, they can consult for kidney problems derived from their hyperphosphatemia, or also for muscle signs.
When phosphorus increases your blood concentration, calcium usually decreases, causing hypocalcemia. In this state, the muscles are frequently cramp, even with the appearance of spasms.
Another long-term consequence is the alteration of arterial walls. Excess phosphorus can be deposited on the walls of blood vessels, in combination with calcium, contributing to arteriosclerosis, which increases the risk of serious cardiovascular events.
Keep discovering: Treatment of chronic renal failure
When hyperphosphatemia is generated by a basic disease, such as kidney failure or hypoparathyroidism, then the treatment will be the correction of that pathology. On the other hand, to treat excess phosphorus itself there are three alternatives:
- Low phosphate diet: With the advice of a nutritional professional, a diet is prepared that does not exceed 1000 milligrams of phosphorus daily.
- Dialysis: filtering the blood artificially supplements the functioning of the kidney when it is not at maximum capacity.
- Chelators: There are medications capable of binding to the phosphorus that enters with food to prevent the intestine from absorbing it. In this way, phosphorus is removed outside without reaching the blood.
Of course, It will be the doctor who decides which treatment is best in each case. Regularly, extreme measures are not necessary, so if you have received an analysis that reports hyperphosphatemia, do not be alarmed. You should consult a professional to evaluate what steps are to be taken.