Cranioencephalic trauma, what is it?

Cranioencephalic trauma, as its name suggests, is a injury that affects both the skull and the brain. It can also be a functional impairment, even if there is no appreciable physical injury.

It can be produced by an impact on the skull with another element, be it an object or a penetrating weapon. On the other hand, it can also be due to acceleration and deceleration movements without a direct hit.

In developed countries, traumatic brain injury is the third cause of death. In fact, is the leading cause of death and disability in adults under 45. It is caused mainly by traffic accidents, falls and fights.

There is a greater risk for young men because is associated with the abuse of toxic substances, such as alcohol or exciting drugs. In this article we explain what are the main causes and symptoms of head trauma.

What are the main causes and symptoms?

In order to define a traumatic brain injury, there must be an external force that causes certain brain dysfunction. It is a disorder that has two peaks of incidence:

  • In young people: usually occurs due to traffic accidents or assaults. Other causes are accidents at work or sports.
  • From 65 years old: the main cause are falls.

The symptoms usually depend on the intensity of the impact. They may appear immediately after or even take days or weeks.

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Mild cranioencephalic trauma

Symptoms after a light stroke may be nonexistent. However, the most prominent are certain daze, disorientation and amnesia. Even, the person who suffers may lose consciousness for seconds or minutes He usually feels headache, nausea or vomiting and fatigue.

Other symptoms They may be:

  • Difficulty to sleep or sleep more than usual
  • Dizziness or loss of balance
  • Blurry vision or ringing in the ears

Trauma of moderate or severe intensity

In these cases, the aforementioned symptoms occur, but they can be complicated. The loss of knowledge is usually more severe, constant headache and vomiting are more common. In addition, there are usually seizures, involvement of the pupils and loss of coordination.

In these cases, the disorientation is much greater. It is important to know that in a severe head injury the person can go into a coma.

What are the injuries of a traumatic brain injury?

Traumas in the head can produce a very wide range of injuries. First, they can be open or closed lesions, depending on whether they affect the scalp or not.

There may be fractures of the skull bones, but it should be noted that his absence does not rule out a brain injury. When there are fractures, there are usually very visible signs such as raccoon eyes and bleeding in the ear or nose.

On the other hand, Intracranial hemorrhages may occur. These can be intracerebral or take place in the epidural or subdural space. All of them can cause more serious neurological injuries. There may be paralysis, paresis, speech alterations, et cetera.

Occasionally, traumatic brain injuries produce diffuse axonal lesions in the neurons that make up the brain. They are produced by an acceleration and deceleration mechanism. They tend to have more complex and irreparable consequences than hemorrhages.

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Treatment of a traumatic brain injury

The treatment depends on the severity of the injury. When it is mild, treatment is usually limited to rest, observation and analgesics for pain. When it comes to something serious, the most important thing is to maintain blood pressure and adequate ventilation of that person.

Serious cases must be treated in a hospital. There will be complementary tests such as computed tomography to locate possible injuries. In addition, you will be given medications to reduce intracranial pressure or prevent seizures.

In some cases, it may be necessary to perform surgery to remove bruises, stop bleeding or repair fractures.

In conclusion

It is important take security measures to protect against a possible blow. The main measure must be to drive safely, avoiding doing so after having taken alcohol or drugs. In the same way, you have to wear a helmet, both on a bicycle and on a motorcycle. Also adjust the seat belt well.

Further, After any type of blow to the head, it is best to go to the doctor. He will perform the relevant examinations and check that there is no problem to avoid possible later complications.