11 reasons to have a cesarean delivery

A baby has two ways of going out into the world: vaginal delivery or cesarean delivery. The first occurs naturally and the second It requires a surgical intervention for the obstetrician surgeon to remove it from the mother's uterus. The incision is almost always made in the lower part of the abdomen.

Cesarean sections can be scheduled or emergency. The first, also called of choice, it is agreed with the mother days before the baby is born. It is often a proposal that comes from the doctor and responds to the patient's medical history.

The recourse or emergency cesarean section, on the other hand, is a decision that must be made at the beginning of labor, which in principle would be vaginal. Always under the criteria of guaranteeing the life of the mother and the baby.

Reasons for a cesarean section

The reasons for a cesarean delivery define what type is performed and what risks the procedure has. In all caesarean sections, the underlying reason will be to ensure the health and well-being of the mother and the fetus.

According to the “Declaration of the World Health Organization (WHO) on caesarean section rates”, the ideal proportion should be between 10% and 15%. This means that, of every 10 deliveries, less than 2 should be by this means.

In order to help determine the need for this surgery, the WHO proposes the use in hospitals of the Robson classification model. In this regard, he published an application manual that helps doctors to optimize the use of cesarean section.

Following the aforementioned Statement, Robson's classification system has five characteristics that must be evaluated and they are the following:

  • Parity: if the woman is nulliparous, multiparous with and without prior caesarean section.
  • Beginning of labor: whether it was spontaneous, induced or by caesarean section before the start of labor.
  • Gestational age: whether it is a preterm or term delivery.
  • Fetal presentation: if the fetus is located in a cephalic, breech or transverse position.
  • Number of fetuses: a single baby or a multiple pregnancy.

Preliminary studies in pregnancy help determine the need for a planned C-section.

Discover: Care before and after a cesarean section

Complications that affect the mother's health

The need for a cesarean section can be determined if the mother meets any of the following conditions:

  • Had a previous cesarean section or has been operated on in utero. In this case, it is recommended to repeat the intervention and avoid a possible uterine rupture.
  • You have a tumor on your cervix or in another place that makes it difficult for the baby to come out.
  • Have any heart disease that may be aggravated in the effort of labor.
  • You have had any loss in a vaginal delivery. Cesarean section may be suggested as an option.
  • The pelvis is not ready for vaginal delivery, either due to malformation or due to the baby's size.

Complications that affect the health of the baby

Also the conditions of the fetus can determine a cesarean section. Among the most frequent we find the following:

  • Intrauterine conditions are no longer adequate and the baby begins to suffer, so it must be removed from the womb.
  • The baby is very big or very small: It can be due to uncontrolled gestational diabetes or some intrauterine growth restriction (problems with the placenta or with the flow of blood from the umbilical cord).
  • Baby's position other than cephalic: especially if it occurs breech or breech and you want to avoid risks, such as prolapse of the cord or head dystocia.

Complications that affect the health of both

Some particular situations involve the mother and the fetus at the same time, which is why a caesarean section is preferred:

  • Labor takes too long: the mother no longer reaches the ideal dilation for vaginal discharge.
  • Diseases associated with pregnancy: preeclampsia or placenta previa.
  • Base diseases of the mother: diabetes, kidney disease, liver problems, HIV or a viral infection in the birth canal.

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Risks of cesarean delivery

Cesarean section, like all surgery, is not without risks. Some studies record statistics that show less possibility of complications in planned cesarean sections (21.3%) than in emergency ones (42.4%). So carrying out a control during pregnancy is essential.

Among the risks of the procedure are the involvement of an organ close to the surgery site, thrombi forming, the uterus becoming infected, or bleeding that may lead to a hysterectomy.

Other less serious setbacks that can manifest are internal bruising, infections at the operation site, and dehiscence of the suture.

Cesarean section surgery has some complications that can appear after a while, such as infection of the wound or its opening. Although they are rare.

The reasons for cesarean delivery are becoming clearer

The type of delivery for which the baby will be born is a decision that must be made together with the specialist who followed the pregnancy. The reasons for performing a cesarean delivery are becoming clearer and will guide physicians in evaluating and establishing their criteria.

So if they tell us that we are candidates for a cesarean section, there is no need to fear, at present it is a fairly safe surgery when the forecasts are taken. And a resource that can save us, in many cases, from complications that endanger our life or that of the baby.